Our Research and Reports
This paper examines the local food systems in seven states in which the Western Organization of Resource Councils (WORC) has member groups – Colorado, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota and Wyoming. Using publicly-available data, we analyzed multiple aspects of food systems in order to understand where each state stood, in terms of the strength of both the production and demand side of the local food market.
This report summarizes state local food legislation related to local production, marketing, sales and consumption proposed and either passed or defeated between 2005 and 2016 in WORC states: Colorado, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Oregon and Idaho. This summary may not be comprehensive in all states as it does not include state appropriations bills in detail. State policy often change quickly; this summary reflects research conducted in July 2016.
Growing the 16% addresses the problem of beef market concentration and its impact on independent livestock producers, local meatpacking infrastructure, and rural communities. Instead of trying to break up the four packers who bought 84% of the cattle raised by America’s ranchers, we turned our attention to the ranchers and small packers and processors who buy the rest of the cattle – the 16% of the market that isn’t controlled by major meatpackers -- to expand and enhance that market as a viable alternative for producers and consumers.
The True Cost of Coal Exports describes the many problems with proposals to export coal through the Pacific Northwest. Coal companies have proposed building three new coal export terminals on the west coast of the United States and Canada. If successful, these proposals would vastly increase export capacity for coal from the Powder River Basin in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming — meaning that more coal could be mined from this region, shipped by train across the United States and parts of Canada to sell on the global market. Each step of this process — mining coal, transporting coal by train,…
Undermined Promise II finds that coal companies have fallen far behind in reclaiming mines, and, with the coal industry on shaky financial ground, the public faces increasing liability for massive reclamation costs of more than $3.5 billion and damage to landscapes, wildlife and crucial water supplies. The American public will be left to deal with the fallout as companies scramble to offset low prices and decreasing demand at home for coal by exporting their product to foreign markets. Reclamation bonds that coal companies are required to post under federal law may outstrip the industry’s financial resources. Out of a total of…
Heavy Traffic Still Ahead updates WORC’s July 2012 report, Heavy Traffic Ahead, and reevaluates the anticipated increase in coal train traffic in light of the current proposals for new or expanded port facilities in the Pacific Northwest. In addition, the update discusses the combined effects of oil trains traveling from North Dakota over the same routes. The report also identifies impacts to communities along the transport route, consequences for existing rail users, including grain shippers and passenger service, and how coal export could affect rail corridors already near capacity.
The Oil and Gas Reclamation Bonding Amounts matrix lists the bonding requirements for 11 states and the federal government. Reclamation bonds are intended to ensure that the companies, not taxpayers, pay for well recovery. Bond amounts, however, are often too low to cover the damages from drilling. This is especially true with blanket bonds. A blanket bond sets an amount to reclaim, theoretically, all of an operator's wells within a state or across the country. Reclamation crisis Oil and gas bonding is problematic because of the boom and bust nature of the industry. States like Wyoming face a reclamation crisis…
Surging oil production in shale hot spots, like the Bakken in North Dakota and Eagle Ford in Texas, has increased waste of natural gas through flaring, venting, and leaking. WORC’s report, The Flaring Boom, examines the causes and effects of flaring, venting, and leaking of natural gas by examining efforts to curtail these wasteful practices in Alaska, Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. (more…)
No Time to Waste examines standards and disposal practices around radioactive oil and gas waste in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. It finds that state governments in each of these states fail to protect citizens and the environment from a hazardous and quickly growing waste stream. The report calls for federal rules for radioactive oil and gas waste and stronger state standards.